Male Osteoporosis

  • Konstantinos Gkastaris
Keywords: Male osteoporosis, osteoporosis, fracture risk, hypogonadism, pharmacological treatment


Osteoporosis is a chronic condition characterized by impaired bone remodelling that results in reduced bone mineral density, excessive bone loss and increased fracture risk. Osteoporosis in men is a fairly common condition, affecting 2-8% of men worldwide and more than 30% by the age of 85. Despite these compelling figures, the condition is under-estimated, under-diagnosed and under-treated. As a result and since the condition is almost always a “silent disease”, the first presentation is often a fragility fracture. Although the mechanisms and conditions that cause osteoporosis in men are similar to those in women, male osteoporosis has some unique features. Risk factors in men are very heterogenous and hypogonadism represents a common underlying cause. Other common aetiological factors are poor vitamin D and calcium levels, chronic underlying haematological, gastroenterological and rheumatological conditions and use of offending drugs or substances. The evidence for diagnosis, screening and treatment of male osteoporosis is quite poor and most of the current  knowledge is extrapolated from the female counterpart. Identification and prompt therapy of underlying conditions leading to osteoporosis is essential before additional anti-resorptive or anabolic treatment is considered. This review discusses the current evidence on pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, screening and treatment of osteoporosis in men.


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Author Biography

Konstantinos Gkastaris

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, St Luke’s Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece


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