Application of Nanotechnology in Medicine. Smart Biomaterials and Biosensors
Nanomaterials have found a wide field of application in medicine in terms of diagnosis, tracing, and treatment. This nanomedical technology involves drug delivery couriers, in vivo medical imaging, in vitro diagnostics, therapeutic techniques, biomaterials and tissue engineering products. In nanobiomedicine, tissue engineered scaffolds establish a tissue specific nanoenvironment to maintain and regulate cell behavior and function. Nanoscaffolds play a vital role in storing, releasing and activating a wide range of biological factors, along with aiding cell-to-cell communication and cell-soluble factor interaction. Certain fabrication methods such as self-assembly, phase separation, and electrospinning technology form 2D and 3D nanopatterns that play different roles in cell manipulation and functional tissue formation. Localized and controlled delivery of biological factors, response to certain stimuli, degradation rate of the nanomaterials and reproduction of the forming tissues, are issues with emerging research.
Recently, nanotechnology has revolutionized the development of biosensors. The transduction mechanisms have been significantly improved with the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Hybrid nanostructures, quantum dots, nanoparticles for enzyme immobilization, are widely used for the merging of chemical and biological sensors. The application of these nanomaterials for sensing several key pathways and regulatory events made the overall process fast, easy to execute, and better in terms of performance providing a friendly and result-oriented experimental support. Nanobiosensors are highly versatile and multifunctional so they can find application in broad biomedical and environmental fields.
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